Linking Jakarta’s Typical Indonesian Urban Context, Air Pollution, and Child Health

Dewi Sumaryani Soemarko1, Eddy Fadlyana2, Budi Haryanto3, 4, Sonia Buftheim5, Budi Hartono3, Erika Wasito6, Ray Wagiu Basrowi1, 6, *
1 Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, JakartaIndonesia
2 Department of Growth and Development-Social Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia
3 Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
4 Research Center for Climate Change, Institute for Sustainable Earth & Resources, Universitas Indonesia
5 Nano Interfacial Chemistry (NIC) Lab-Department of Chemistry, Universitas of Indonesia
6 Medical and Science Affairs Division, Danone Specialized Nutrition, Jakarta, Indonesia



Jakarta, the second largest metropolitan area in the world after Tokyo, has experienced rapid development that may not have adhered to the established urban planning regulations. These have caused multiple urban health risk issues, such as high private transportation use, coal-powered plants, lack of green spaces, and industrialization. All of regulations have contributed to the high level of air pollutants in Jakarta Metropolitan Area (JMA). Air pollution is one of the most significant health problems in the world and children are especially exposed to this. The fact that children’s organs are still in growth and development phase means that they are especially susceptible to the pollutants entering the body. Existing data showed that the air pollutants in JMA, specifically PM2.5, SO2, NO2, and CO are categorized as moderate to high compared to the international standards, therefore, could potentially become a contributing factor to the mortality and morbidity of children living in Jakarta.


More aggressive approaches are required to tackle air pollution issues, especially because the UN General Assembly has recognized air pollution as one of the most serious risk factors for health.

Keywords: Air pollution, Child health, Indonesia, Urban, Jakarta metropolitan area (JMA), World health organization.

Abstract Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2023
Volume: 16
DOI: 10.2174/18749445-v16-e230905-2023-109

Article History:

Electronic publication date: 05/09/2023
Collection year: 2023

© 2023 Soemarko et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Medical and Science Affairs Division, Danone Specialized Nutrition, Jakarta, Indonesia; E-mail: