Psychological Distress Induces Poor Sleep Quality: A Cross-Sectional Study of Pharmacy Students in Bandung City, Indonesia

Sofa D. Alfian*, Henry Ng, Dika P. Destiani, Rizky Abdulah
Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, Sumedang, Indonesia

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© 2018 Alfian et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to the author at the Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jl. Raya Bandung Sumedang KM 21, Jatinangor, 45363, Indonesia; Tel: +62-22-7796200; E-mail:



Poor subjective sleep quality in undergraduate students has not been widely studied in Bandung city, Indonesia. Poor sleep quality has been related to a number of risk factors for poor health outcomes.


To analyze the association between psychological distress and subjective sleep quality.


A cross sectional survey was done in one of the universities of Bandung city, Indonesia. Data were collected from 290 undergraduate students selected through consecutive sampling. Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Kessler-10 questionnaire were administered.


The prevalence of psychological distress was well (43.1%), mild (28.6%), moderate (20.7%), and severe (7.6%). The overall sleep quality was poor and good in 84.5% and 15.5% of the students. There was a significant association between psychological distress and poor sleep quality (p=0.006). The multivariate analysis suggested that psychological distress was a predictor of poor sleep quality (OR 1.991; 95% CI, 1.311−3.026).


There is a need for an awareness of the college resources to help manage the stress levels of students through effective coping strategy-related study habits.

Keywords: Sleep quality, Psychological distress, Students, Kessler-10, Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, Multivariate analysis.