RESEARCH ARTICLE


Evaluating Helmet Use Among Motorcycle Drivers in Lebanon



Ziad Akl1, 2, *, Mona Akl2, Charli Eriksson1, Mervyn Gifford1, Dalal Koustuv1, 3
1 School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden
2 Youth Association for Social Awareness- YASA, Baabda, Lebanon
3 Higher School of Public Health, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty, Kazakhstan


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© 2018 Akl et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to the author at the School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden, Tel: +961-3-601972, Fax: +961-5-952587; E-mails: ziad.akl@oru.se; ziad@yasa.org


Abstract

Background:

The impact of the use of helmet by motorcyclists on motorcycle injuries is enormous. The primary focus of this study was to asses the helmet use among motorcycle riders as well as the helmet quality.

Methods:

Both quantitative and qualitative studies had been done. Nine observational studies have been done over nine different years between 1997 and 2017 in the same spots. In addition to one qualitative study done in May 2017.

Results:

The results of the observational studies show a clear fluctuation in the use of helmets (6 - 42%). Whenever there is law enforcement, the percentage of users increases. Upon cessation of enforcement, the percentage of helmet use reduces. About 64% of the helmets inspected did not appear to have a certification, which indicates that the helmet did not meet international standards. Those who had spent less than US$15 on buying their helmets were found wearing a non-certified helmet.

Conclusion:

Lebanon has failed to pursue a successful and sustainable implementation of the enforcement of helmet use. Although strict enforcement measures are vital, it is almost as important to ban the import of poor quality helmets to the Lebanese market and to make sure that taxation is lower on helmets to enable consumers to buy good quality helmets at a lower price.

Keywords: Helmet, Injury Prevention, Legislation, Lebanon, Observations, Road Traffic Injuries (RTI), Low-income country, Law enforcement.