RESEARCH ARTICLE


Medication Adherence and its Association with Glycaemic Control, Blood Pressure Control, Glycosuria and Proteinuria Among People Living With Diabetes (PLWD) in the Ho Municipality, Ghana



James Osei-Yeboah1, *, Sylvester Yao Lokpo1, William K. B. A. Owiredu2, 7, Beatrice Bella Johnson3, Verner Ndudiri Orish4, Felix Botchway5, Francis Abeku Ussher6, Roseline Avorkliyah1
1 Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, School of Allied Health Sciences, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Ghana
2 Department of Molecular Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
3 Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Ghana
4 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho Volta Region, Ghana
5 Department of Chemical Pathology, University of Ghana, Accra, Greater Accra Region, Ghana
6 Faculty of Health and Allied Sciences, Koforidua Technical University, Koforidua, Eastern Region, Ghana
7 Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Diagnostic Directorate, Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana


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© 2018 Osei-Yeboah et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, School of Allied Health Sciences, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Ghana; E-mail: joyeboah@uhas.edu.gh


Abstract

Background:

Adherence is the active, voluntary, and collaborative involvement of the patient in a mutually acceptable course of behaviour to produce a therapeutic result. The study is aimed at assessing adherence to medication and its relation to therapeutic outcomes among people living with diabetes in the Ho Municipality.

Methodology:

A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 150 diabetic patients attending the diabetic clinic at the Ho Municipal Hospital. Urine glucose and urine protein were measured using a two-parameter dipstick. The current fasting blood glucose and blood pressure, as well as the measurements of two previous visits, were documented. A semi-structured questionnaire including the Diabetes Complication Checklist and the Morisky, Green and Levine Adherence Scale were used to capture biodata, clinical information and medication adherence.

Results:

Optimal medication adherence was 60.67%. Glycaemic control and controlled blood pressure were 33.33% and 58.67%, respectively. The prevalence of glycosuria and proteinuria was 10.67% and 3.3%, respectively. Percentage glycaemic control and controlled blood pressure were found to be higher among the medication adherent group, while glycosuria and proteinuria were the highest among participants presenting with low medication adherence.

Conclusion:

In this group of patients living with diabetes in the Ho Municipality, high level of uncontrolled glycaemia and blood pressure exist.

However, these two treatment outcomes may be modulated by optimal medication adherence.

Keywords: Blood pressure control, Diabetes mellitus, Glycaemic control, Glycosuria, Medication adherence, Proteinuria.