Indoor Air Pollution and Respiratory Function on Primary School Students in West Jakarta, Indonesia

Gelora J.T. Mulia1, Bambang Wispriyono1, *, Haryoto Kusnoputranto1, Budi Hartono1, Anna Rozaliyani2
1 Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health, University of Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia
2 Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia

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© 2020 Mulia et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health, University of Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia;



This study aimed to investigate the relationship between air pollutant exposure, i.e., Particulate Matter (PM2,5), and the numbers of airborne bacterial colonies inside the classroom to the respiratory symptoms of three primary school children in West Jakarta.


We did a quantitative study with a cross-sectional design using variables, i.e., age, sex, physical activity, nutritional status, students’ density, ventilation, classroom temperature, and classroom humidity. We used Haz-Dust EPAM 5000 to measure PM2,5,MAS 100 NT to calculate the total bacterial colony, spirometry to measure the respiratory capacity, and questionnaire to measure other related variables.


We found a significant relationship between PM2,5concentration with respiratory symptoms, however, there was no significant relationship between the total number of airborne bacterial colonies with respiratory symptoms.


Based on our results, we conclude that there was a significant relationship between the PM 2,5 concentration and obstructive pulmonary symptoms and there was no significant relationship between the numbers of the bacterial colonies with pulmonary symptoms.

Keywords: Children, PM2,5, Airborne bacterial colony, Respiratory function, Primary school, West Jakarta.