Prevalence and Potential Risk Factors Associated with High Sodium : Intake among Chinese-Haw Tribal in the Rural Area of Chiang Rai Province, Northern Thailand

The Open Public Health Journal 18 Feb 2020 RESEARCH ARTICLE DOI: 10.2174/1874944502013010022



Sodium intake has a known association with increasing hypertension, cause of death from Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs) worldwide. Ethnic group is increasingly exposed to risk factors to CVD causing of the urbanization and cultural changes.


This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence and potential factors associated with high sodium intake in the Chinese-Haw tribe in Chiang Rai province. Stratified random sampling was used to recruit participants. Face-to-face interviews were used for demographic data and assessment of dietary sodium knowledge, self-efficacy and food consumption. For dietary sodium intake, first-morning urine were collected for identifying concentration of sodium in millimoles per litre (mmol/L) using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Unconditional multiple logistic regression was used for determining risk factors associated with high sodium intake.


There were 302 participants of which majority were women (71.9%), with average age of 49.50 years (±12.12 S.D.). The prevalence of sodium intake was 90.70% more than 2,000 mg/day (High). The association between potential risk factors and high sodium intake revealed that men had higher risk than women (Risk Ratio 1.13, 95%CI 1.07 - 1.19). Multivariate analysis revealed only gender can predict a high sodium intake after adjusted for smoking patterns and alcohol consumption (adjusted odds ratio 13.73, CI 1.43 - 131.95).


Prevalence of excess sodium intake per day in the Chinese-Haw tribe was high. This might lead to unhealthy effects. The population at risk should receive appropriate intervention urgently.

Keywords: Chinese-Haw Tribe, First - Morning Urine, Northern Thailand, Prevalence of Sodium Intake, Potential Risk Factors, Rural Area.
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