Determinant of Diabetes Mellitus Focusing on Differences of Indonesian Culture: Case Studies in the Java and Outer Java Region in Indonesia

Oktia W. K. Handayani1, *, Efa Nugroho1, Bertakalswa Hermawati1
1 Department of Public Health , Semarang State University, Semarang, Indonesia

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© 2020 Handayani et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Public Health , Semarang State University, F5 Building, 2nd Floor, Sekaran Campus, Gunungpati 50229, Semarang City, Semarang, Indonesia; Tel: +628164243569; E-mail:



In 2017, Indonesia was ranked 6th in the world, with 10.3 million DM sufferers. Indonesia consists of many islands with diverse communities, diverse social and cultural environments, which allow different factors to affect the increasing number of DM cases.


This research objective is to analyze the differences in the factors of the social environment, cultural environment, knowledge and behavior that are potential to DM in Java and outside Java.


This research uses a quantitative approach with independent sample t-test data analysis techniques. The population was DM type 2 patients, with a sample size of 294 people. The technique was to determine the sample by accidental sampling in patients who seek treatment during prolanis (chronical disease management program) activities. The independent variables consist of social environment, cultural environment, knowledge and behavior. The dependent variable is DM disease. Data is equipped with qualitative data.


The results showed that there were differences between Javanese and Outer Java respondents on social environmental factors (t value 6.682), cultural environment (t value 5.752), knowledge (t value 7.079) and behavior (t value 16.579) with each Sig 0.000 value. All factors that are variables in this study have higher values in the Java region compared to those outside Java, and the highest difference is in the social environment variable (average difference of 3,979), which has an effect on very high behavioral differences (average differences average 6,037).


It can be concluded that there are differences in the social environment, cultural environment, knowledge, and behavior that influence the incidence of diabetes mellitus in Indonesian society.

Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, Social culture, Behavior, Island, Lifestyle, Cultural environment, Knowledge.