Economic Impact of Osteoporosis Related Hip Fractures in Bahrain. A Systematic Review

Mir Sadat-Ali1, 2, *
1 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, King Fahd Hospital of the University Imam AbdulRahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia
2 Affiliate Consultant Orthopaedic Surgeon, Awali Hospital, Awali, Kingdom of Bahrain

Article Metrics

CrossRef Citations:
Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 136
Abstract HTML Views: 93
PDF Downloads: 116
Total Views/Downloads: 345
Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 105
Abstract HTML Views: 59
PDF Downloads: 94
Total Views/Downloads: 258

Creative Commons License
© 2021 Mir Sadat-Ali.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at Orthopaedic Surgery, King Fahd Hospital of the University Imam AbdulRahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia; Tel: +966505848281; Fax: +966138820887;



Fragility fractures are common due to osteoporosis and there is very limited data on hip fractures from the Middle East in general and Kingdom of Bahrain in particular. The aim of this paper is to review the published data of femoral fractures in the Middle East and extrapolate the financial burden of osteoporosis related hip fractures in Bahrain and suggest some course of action for the region in controlling the fragility fractures.


An extensive search was performed on published studies on hip fracture from 1990 to 2020 by a Medline, EMBASE the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Science Citation Index, Bahrain Medical Bulletin, Qatar Medical J, Oman with the key words: Osteoporosis, osteopenia, fragility hip fractures. The inclusion criterion was studies published during 1990-2020 describing the prevalence of osteoporosis and proximal hip fractures in patients with ≥50 years, from the Kingdom of Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, State of Kuwait, Sultanate of Oman, United Arab Emirates, State of Kuwait, Iraq, Iran, Turkey and the State Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Based on the fractures per 1000, an average was taken and extrapolated for the Kingdom of Bahrain and direct and indirect costs were assessed.


A total of 19 studies were selected for analysis from 10 countries. The average prevalence of postmenopausal osteoporosis was 29.37±6.97% (Range 20.2 to 38.5). In these 10 countries, 252.411 million people live, with an average of 28.56% suffering from osteoporosis. A total of 72.088 million are at risk of having a fragility fracture. The prevalence of fragility fractures of the proximal femur in six countries means prevalence is 4.41/1000. With this average, it is extrapolated that femoral fractures due to osteoporosis costs Bahrain yearly a total of BD 5.31 million.


The prevalence of Osteoporosis is going to increase in Bahrain as the population is aging. This will further increase the economic impact of taking care of elderly patients with osteoporosis and related fractures. Early intervention to diagnose and treat this aging population will reduce the cost and save lives.

KeyWords: Osteoporosis, Bahrain, Fragility fractures, Prevalence, Proximal femur, Mortality.