Factors Associated with Self-Care Behavior of Elderly Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in Thailand

Prapada Watcharanat1, *, Kitsarawut Khuancheree1, Brian Lee1
1 Department of Nursing, Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Medical Center , Srinakharinwirot University, Ongkharak, Nakhorn-Nayok, 26120, Thailand

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© 2021 Watcharanat et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Correspondence: Address correspondence to this author at Nursing department, Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Medical Center, Srinakharinwirot University, Ongkharak, Nakhorn-Nayok, 26120, Thailand; E-mail:



Diabetes belongs to the chronic disease group with an average high prevalence rate of 463 million worldwide. This research aims to investigate factors associated with self-care behavior among elderly patients with type 2 diabetes.


The sample included 441 patients diagnosed with diabetes admitted to the Tambon Health Promoting Hospital in Nakhon Nayok Province. The sample size used in this study was calculated according to the sampling group of Yamane with a 95% confidence level. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, correlation coefficients, and multiple regression analysis at the statistical significance level of 0.05.


The results showed that the average value of knowledge was 9.17 (SD=2.38), and the average values of attitude and social support behavior towards diabetes were 2.72 (SD=0.64) and 1.83 (SD=0.27), respectively. The results indicated that knowledge, attitude, and social support towards diabetes showed an average of a medium level. Moreover, the average value of self-care behavior towards diabetes was 30.52 (SD= 7.19). The results indicated that the knowledge about diabetes, attitude towards diabetes, and social support towards diabetes positively affected self-care behavior towards diabetes with the statistical significance of 0.05.


Health promotion programs for patients with diabetes should be organized to promote knowledge and awareness on proper health behavior. In order to take care of themselves, diabetic patients must first get awareness regarding diabetes and then build skills for self-care. The results obtained in the study can help diabetic patients stay healthier, reduce the manifestation of both acute and chronic complications, and improve the quality of life of the elderly with diabetes.

Keywords: Self-care behavior, Patients, Elderly, Diabetes, Chronic complications, Chronic disease.