RESEARCH ARTICLE

Self-management Strategies for Patients with Risk Factors to Reduce the Impact of Cardiovascular Disease in Selected Clinics in Limpopo Province, South Africa

The Open Public Health Journal 05 Sept 2022 RESEARCH ARTICLE DOI: 10.2174/18749445-v16-e2205311

Abstract

Background:

Cardiovascular diseases are now the leading cause of death worldwide, amounting to 17.8% of all deaths recorded. In Sub-Saharan Africa, it contributes to about 13% of deaths, whereas 80% were recorded from developing countries. A quarter of all deaths are attributable to behavioural and metabolic risk factors due to patients` lack of self-management strategies, which are practices and activities that the patients can use and manage themselves, effectively preventing the development of CVD.

Objective:

The study aimed to explore patients at risk of CVD’s knowledge of self-management strategies to prevent the development of CVD.

Methods:

This was a qualitative exploratory and descriptive study conducted in four primary health care settings in two contexts (i.e., a rural and peri-urban setting) in the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. The target population were patients with risk factors and diagnosed with either hypertension or diabetes mellitus. Twenty-five patients (male n=9; female n=16) were purposefully sampled and participated in semi-structured individual interviews with a schedule guide. The data was analysed using thematic Tesch’s open coding qualitative data analysis method.

Results:

Thematically analysed data resulted in three main themes and their related subthemes enumerating patients at risk of CVD’s knowledge regarding disease onset, risk factors, and self-management, including daily challenges affecting disease progression. The major themes isolated are 1) knowledge related to CVD onset, symptoms, and self-management strategies, 2) challenges experienced by persons at risk of developing CVD, 3) suggestions to help improve health and the prevention of the onset of CVD.

Conclusion:

The study concludes by recommending in-depth CVD awareness and education programs for patients at risk. More importantly, the provision of mental health awareness, counselling, and equipping patients with coping skills are recommended.

Keywords: Cardiovascular diseases, Self-management strategies, Clinics, Risk factors, HIC, Global deaths.
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