Frequency Distribution of Depression and its Associated Factors among Pregnant Women during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Zahra Abbasi1
, Sam Saghari2
, Abdorrahman Harif Nashtifani3
, Salman Daneshi4
, Kiavash Hushmandi5
, Rasoul Raesi6, *

1 Akbar Clinical Research & Development Unit, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
2 Department Of Health Services Management, Tehran Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
3 Department of Health Care Management, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran
4 Department of Public Health, School of Health, Jiroft University of Medical Sciences, Jiroft, Iran
5 Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Division of Epidemiology & Zoonosis, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
6 Health Services Management, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

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Creative Commons License
© 2023 Abbasi et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Health Services Management, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; E-mail:



This study aimed to determine the frequency distribution of depression and its associated factors among pregnant women.


Health is mentioned as a prerequisite for sustainable development in every society, and pregnant women play an irreplaceable role as the central axis of the health of society.


A cross-sectional study was conducted with 102 pregnant women living in northeastern Iran, in 2021. The data was collected using an electronic questionnaire that included demographic questions and the Beck Depression Inventory items. Data analysis was done using SPSS-22 statistical software and independent t-tests, one-way analysis of variance, Tukey's post hoc, and linear regression. A significance level of 0.05 was considered.


The mean depression score of pregnant women was 25.77 ± 6.62, with the majority (53.9%) suffering from moderate depression. The frequency distribution of depression was lower among university-educated women than those with lower-level degrees and among employed women than homemakers (P <0.05). The third trimester of pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of depression (P <0.001). The frequency distribution of depression increased with increasing numbers of children (P <0.001). Miscarriage, a family history of depression, an unwanted pregnancy, and the infliction of close relatives with COVID-19 all increased the risk of depression in women (P <0.05).


Pregnancy during COVID-19 pandemic can be associated with potential complications for the embryo, mother, and child. Amid the current global COVID-19 Pandemic, all pregnant women must undergo routine screening for depression as part of their prenatal care.

Keywords: Depression, Pregnancy, Women, COVID-19, Disease, Pandemic.