Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is one of the complications in the reproductive years during the luteal phase of menstruation. According to the importance of PMS, performing educational programs in the promotion of PMS prevention behaviors is demanded. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of an educational intervention based on the health belief model (HBM) to promote knowledge, attitude, and behavioral changes about PMS in female high school students.


Based on a previous similar survey technique, this quasi-experimental study was conducted on 200 female high school students (100 in the experimental group and 100 in the control group) in Fasa City, Fars province, Iran in 2020-2021. A questionnaire consisting of demographic information, knowledge, and HBM constructs was used to measure the prevention behaviors of PMS before and three months after the intervention. Educational intervention was performed for the experimental group in eight sessions of 45-50 minutes once a week. The study involved eight weekly sessions for the experimental group, conducted by a doctor in health education and promotion, an obstetrician, and family health specialists using small group discussion, asking and answering questions, a practical show, instructional videos, PowerPoint presentations, and an instructional booklet. The sessions focused on menstruation and PMS definitions, as well as the effects of lifestyle, diet, and physical activity on them. In one of the sessions, mothers of students were invited as supporters and guides for the students. Monthly sessions and a WhatsApp group were provided for tracking activities. Data were analyzed using SPSS-22 software through the paired t-test, the independent t-test, and the Chi-square test with a significance level of P < 0.05


The mean age of the students was 16.79 ± 1.82 years in the experimental group and 16.91 ± 1.69 years in the control group. Three months after the intervention, the experimental group showed a significant increase in knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, Self-efficacy, cues to action, and prevention behaviors of PMS compared to the control group.


This study showed the effectiveness of HBM constructs in promoting the prevention behaviors of PMS in female students. Hence, this model can act as a framework for designing and implementing educational interventions for the prevention of PMS behaviors.

Keywords: Adolescent health, Medical education, Patient education, Preventive health care, Premenstrual syndrome, Educational intervention.
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