Willingness to Pay for Social Health Insurance and related Factors among Non-members of the National Health Insurance in Indonesia

Muhammad Agus Mikrajab1, *, Mugi Wahidin1, 3, Tri Juni Angkasawati4, Rukmini1, Devi Angelina Kusumaningtiar5
1 The National Research and Innovation Agency, Jakarta, Indonesia
2 The Indonesian Public Health Association, Jakarta, Indonesia
3 The Indonesia Epidemiological Association, Jakarta, Indonesia
4 Health Policy and Development Agency, Ministry of Health, Jakarta, Indonesia
5 Universitas Esa Unggul, Jakarta, Indonesia



Indonesia has implemented the National Health Insurance scheme into its health system since 2014. However, after 6 years, it empirically reported that 18% of the total who registered were still not enrolled in the program.


The aim of this study was to determine the WTP for health social insurance and related factors among non-members of national health insurance in Indonesia.


The study employed a cross-sectional design and utilized the ATP and WTP surveys that were conducted by the National Institute of Health Research and Development under the Ministry of Health in 2019. The sample for the study consisted of 14,143 adult individuals aged 18 years and above from 5,383 households.


The results showed that the WTP ranged from a minimum of 26,483 (USD 1,8) to maximum of IDR 284,606 (USD 20,2) and only 11.3% of which were willing to pay the minimum health insurance payment. People willing to pay for health insurance are more likely to be younger, more educated, have higher economic status, have a history of using primary healthcare, and have previously visited hospitals.


In conclusion, the study found that the WTP varied among non-members and only a small number was willing to pay minimum insurance payment. Furthermore, the determinants of the WTP for health insurance payment included age, education level, family members, occupation status, history of catastrophic disease, economic status, and utilization of primary and hospital care.

Keywords: Ability to pay, Willingness to pay, Health insurance, Non-member, Indonesia.

Abstract Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2023
Volume: 16
DOI: 10.2174/18749445-v16-e20230712-2022-139

Article History:

Electronic publication date: 12/07/2023
Collection year: 2023

© 2023 Mikrajab et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the National Research and Innovation Agency, Jl. M.H. Thamrin No. 8 Jakarta Pusat, Indonesia 10340; Tel: +62 21 3169059; E-mail: naufal0817@yahoo.com