Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Type 2 Diabetic Patients Regarding Obesity at Odi District Hospital, Tshwane District, South Africa

UE Okafor1, *, KE Hlabyago1
1 Department of Family Medicine and Primary Health Care, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, Pretoria, South Africa



Obesity is a major public health problem worldwide due to its links with diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, musculoskeletal disorders, and other disorders related to metabolic syndrome. Being obese or overweight is the main modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes. In 2019, more than 2.1 billion (30%) adults 18 years and older were overweight or obese globally. In the same year, in South Africa, nearly 70% of women and 31% of men were overweight or obese. Obesity can be prevented largely by lifestyle modification.


This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of type 2 diabetic patients regarding obesity at a district hospital in South Africa.


This was a cross-sectional study using a modified and validated interviewer-administered questionnaire on patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending a medical outpatient department at a district hospital. Systematic sampling was used to enroll participants.


Two hundred participants were enrolled. Women (60.5%) were more than men (39.5%), 60.2% were married, over half (51.83%) had high school education and above, and mean age was 58.20 years ± 11.06), mean BMI for males was 26.39 ± 4.63, and mean BMI for females was 30.54 ± 7.32.

The mean percentage knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) scores were 70.13±13.46, 83.43±19.24, and 35.43±25.05, respectively. Participants with high school education had high knowledge and attitude scores as compared to those with no formal education, 14.1% versus 5.9% and 66.2% versus 47.1%, respectively. The females had better KAP scores, 70.72±13.50, 84.42±18.99, and 35.77±24.82 compared to males, 69.24±13.44, 81.92±19.64, and 34.90±25.55, respectively.


The study showed a high level of knowledge as well as positive attitudes regarding obesity. However, this did not translate to practice, which was very poor regarding regular exercise and healthy dietary habits.

Keywords: Obesity, Knowledge, Attitude, Practice, Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Abstract Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2023
Volume: 16
DOI: 10.2174/18749445-v20-e230921-2023-117

Article History:

Electronic publication date: 21/09/2023
Collection year: 2023

© 2023 Okafor and Hlabyago

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Family Medicine and Primary Health Care, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, Pretoria, South Africa. Tel: +012-5213320; E-mail: