The Classroom Exposure of PM2.5, NO2, and SO2 Effecting the Lung Function and Health Problems in the Junior High School Students in Jakarta

Bambang Wispriyono1, *
1 Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health Universitas, Indonesia



The exposure to several air pollutants, i.e., PM2.5, NO2, and SO2, decreased the ambient (outdoor) air quality, but also the indoor air quality, such as inside the school building. Children are susceptible to air pollution exposure; thus, the school’s air quality and students’ respiratory health need to be prioritized. This study aimed to analyze the correlation between the exposure of PM2.5, NO2, and SO2 inside the classroom on the lung function of junior high school students.

Material and Methods:

This study used a cross-sectional approach by analyzing air samples from five schools and examining the lung function of 111 students. A questionnaire was used to gather the information related to respiratory problems, the presence of a smoker in the family, usage of mosquito repellents, usage of furry furniture, the presence of pets at home, and dietary supplement consumption.


The results showed PM2.5, NO2, and SO2 concentrations of 0.09±0.02 mg/m3, 30.31±23.60 µg/m3, and 16.93±7.66 µg/m3, respectively. The FEVI/FVC percentage ratio was normal in all students. However, the abnormality of the percent predicted FEVI was significantly correlated with classrooms that were highly exposed to air pollution (PM2.5 (p=0.005, OR=4.1), NO2 (p=0.007, OR=3.8), and SO2 (p=0.007, OR=3.8)). The abnormalities in percent predicted FEF25-75 were significantly correlated with either the usage of mosquito repellent at home (p=0.027, OR=7.9) or not consuming dietary supplements (p=0.027, OR=7.9). The high exposure of NO2 and SO2 in the classroom was significantly correlated with dizziness symptoms (p=0.032, OR=2.4). The cold symptom was significantly correlated with the presence of a pet in the house (p=0.025, OR=4.4) or furry furniture (p=0.017, OR=2.8).


The high exposure of PM2.5, NO2, and SO2 in the classroom and several air pollutant exposures at home was related to the students’ health symptoms. Therefore, necessary health problem prevention steps are needed.

Keywords: Lung function, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, School, Student.

Abstract Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2023
Volume: 16
DOI: 10.2174/18749445-v16-e230517-2023-27

Article History:

Electronic publication date: 17/05/2023
Collection year: 2023

© 2023 Bambang Wispriyono

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health Universitas, Indonesia; E-mail: