Investigating the Anxiety Caused by COVID-19 and its Relationship with the Self-efficacy and General Health in Iranian Nurses

The Open Public Health Journal 06 June 2024 RESEARCH ARTICLE DOI: 10.2174/0118749445308986240603064738



Since its outbreak, the COVID-19 pandemic has taken a heavy toll on the public, particularly among healthcare workers, causing excessive mortality and health problems. The present study seeks to determine the anxiety caused by COVID-19 and its impact on nurses' self-efficacy as well as their general health in Shahroud University of Medical Sciences affiliated hospitals.

Materials and Methods

This is a cross-sectional study conducted in 2023. Our sample consists of 133 nurses working in hospitals affiliated with Shahroud University of Medical Sciences. A questionnaire was used to measure the anxiety caused by COVID-19 as well as its impact on nurses' self-efficacy and general health. The collected data were then analyzed using Chi-square tests, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and logistic regression at a 5 percent significance level.


In this study, 106 nurses (79.7%) were female. The mean score of anxiety caused by COVID-19 was 12.0±7.7 while the mean self-efficacy score and the mean health score were 47.4±12.3 and 20.6±8.0, respectively. Also, 88 (66.2%) nurses had normal general health status, while 45 (33.8%) had mild general health problems. In addition, 91 people (68.4%) suffered from low self-efficacy, whereas 42 people (31.6%) were high in self-efficacy. Pearson's correlation coefficient stressed a positive and significant linear relationship between anxiety score and self-efficacy score (r=0.33, p<0.001). As expected, there was a positive and significant linear relationship between anxiety score and general health (r=0.39, p<0.001). The results from the multivariate regression analysis emphasize that gender, anxiety, general health, and marital status have a significant impact on the sense of self-efficacy.


Given the low sense of self-efficacy among nurses and its implications for public health, it is suggested that the top managers of the university should adopt new approaches to collaborative management in order to improve the self-efficacy among nurses. The relevant officials are also advised to apply methods to appreciate nurses' positive performance and to provide appropriate feedback on their skills and capabilities. Further, to realize better public health and enhanced self-efficacy, policymakers should take steps to ensure social and emotional support for nurses and to upgrade their knowledge and skills.

Keywords: Anxiety caused by COVID-19, Self-efficacy, General health, Nurses, COVID-19, Anxiety.
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