Pressure Ulcers Prevalence and Potential Risk Factors Among Intensive Care Unit Patients in Governmental Hospitals in Palestine: A Cross-sectional Study

Jamal A.S. Qaddumi1, *, Omar Almahmoud2
1 Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, An-Najah National University, PO Box 7, Nablus, Palestine
2 Department of Pharmacy, Nursing and Health Professions College, Birzeit University, Birzeit, Palestine

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© 2019 Qaddumi and Almahmoud.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, An-Najah National University, PO Box 7, Nablus, Palestine; E-mail:



To determine the prevalence rate and the potential risk factors of pressure ulcers (PUs) among patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) departments of the government hospitals in Palestine.


A quantitative, cross-sectional, descriptive analytical study was carried out in five government hospital intensive care units in four different Palestinian cities between September 27, 2017, and October 27, 2017. The data of 109 out of 115 (94.78%) inpatients were analyzed. The Minimum Data Set (MDS) recommended by the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (EPUAP) was used to collect inpatients’ information.


The result of the analysis showed that the prevalence of pressure ulcers in the ICU departments was 33%, and the prevalence of PUs when excluding stage one was 7.3%. The common stage for pressure ulcers was stage one. It was also determined that the most common risk factors for the development of pressure ulcers were the number of days in the hospital, moisture, and friction.


According to the recent studies in the Asian States, the prevalence of pressure ulcers in Palestine is considerably higher than in China and Jordan. However, it is still lower than the prevalence reported in comparable published studies in Western Europe. Increasing the staff’s knowledge about PUs screening and preventive measures is highly recommended in order to decrease the burden of PUs.

Keywords: Pressure Ulcers, Risk Factors, Prevalence, ICU, MDS, EPUAP.