Safety Behavior Predictors Related to the Food Safety of Greenhouse Products among the Greenhouse Owners Based on Protection Motivation Theory

Reza Faryabi1, Mohammad A. M. Sharifabad2, Zabihollah A. Sardooei3, Salman Daneshi4, *, Kiavash Hushmandi5, Mehdi Raei6
1 Department of Public Health, School of Public Health, Jiroft University of Medical Sciences, Jiroft, Iran
2 Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran
3 Department of Phytopathology, School of Agriculture, Jiroft University, Jiroft, Iran
4 Department of Public Health, School of Health, Jiroft University of Medical Sciences, Jiroft, Iran
5 Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Division of Epidemiology & Zoonoses, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
6 Health Research Center, Life Style Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

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© 2021 Faryabi et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at Department of Public Health, School of Health, Jiroft University of Medical Sciences, Jiroft, Iran; Tel: +983443310916; Email:



The purpose of this study was to determine the safety behavior predictors related to the food safety of greenhouse products among the greenhouse owners of Jiroft city based on the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT).


A cross-sectional study was conducted with a descriptive-correlation approach in 2018 on 228 greenhouse owners. A researcher-made questionnaire that included demographic variables, PMT structures, and safety behavior was administered.


Of the surveyed greenhouse owners, 98.2% were men. The participants were aged from 21 to 70 years. The mean scores of all PMT constructs other than response costs, and safety behaviors other than that of preventing the prevalence of pests were at a moderate level. The prediction rate of safety behaviors by PMT constructs was 74.4%. Meanwhile, perceived costs' construct (β = −0.349), response efficacy (β = 0.251), and protection motivation (β = 0.424) had important roles.


Given the predictive power of PMT constructs for safety behaviors related to food safety, educational interventions based on this theory are required.

Keywords: Food safety, Behavior, Pest control, Self-efficacy, Reward, Motivation.