RESEARCH ARTICLE


Community-Based Screening for Cardiovascular Disease in the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province, South Africa



Rambelani N. Malema1, *, Peter M. Mphekgwana2, Mpsanyana Makgahlela1, Tebogo M. Mothiba3, Kotsedi D. Monyeki4, Nancy Kgatla5, Irene Makgatho1, Tholene Sodi1
1 Department of Psychology, University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga, 0727, South Africa
2 Department of Research Administration and Development, University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga, 0727, South Africa
3 Faculty of Health Science, University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga, 0727, South Africa
4 Department of Physiology and Environmental Health, University of Limpopo, Polokwane 0700, South Africa
5 Department of Nursing Science, University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga, 0727, South Africa


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Creative Commons License
© 2021 Malema et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at Department of Psychology, University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga, 0727, South Africa; Tel: +27822005351; E-mail: nancy.malema@ul.ac.za


Abstract

Background:

The number of people who suffer and die from Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is increasing at an alarming rate in low-and middle-income countries.

Objective:

The objective of the study was to screen communities using the non-laboratory INTERHEART Risk Score tool (NLIRS) to determine their level of risk for developing CVD.

Methods:

A community-based quantitative study was conducted in the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province. A total of 3315 participants were screened by 63 community health workers (CHWs) using the NLIRS tool. The tool covers the following items which are allocated different scores: Gender:male ≥55 years or female ≥65years=2; being a smoker or having stopped ≤12 months ago = 2; smoking1-5 cigarettes =2; 6-10=4; 11-15=6;16-20 a day and ≥20=11; indirect smoking last 12 months =2; having diabetes=6 and high blood pressure=5; parental history of heart attack=4; having stress and depression=3 each; consumption of salty and fried food, no vegetables or fruits each scored a 1; eating meat twice a day =2; being inactive =2; waist-to-hip ratio ≥.874-0.963=2 and ≥0.964=4. The scores were added and those who scored 0-9 were classified to be at low risk, 10-15 moderate and 16-48 at high risk.

Results:

On average 58% and 33% were found to be at low and moderate risk, respectively for developing CVD and 9% at high risk. The majority consumed salty, fried foods and meat and were inactive. Being hypertensive constituted 67% of being at high risk of developing CVD.

Conclusion:

Envisaged intervention will focus on preventive strategies for risk factors such as diet, exercise and hypertension. More males should be recruited to participate in future research to determine if the same results will be obtained.

Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, Non-laboratory INTERHEART Risk Score tool, Community health workers, Waist-hip ratio≥.874- ≥0.964, Screening, Diet, Hypertension, Exercise.