MINI-REVIEW


The Interaction between Hellenic and Persian Pharmacology: What's the output?



Azam Khosravi1, Saeed Changizi-Ashtiyani1, *, Saeed Amini2
1 Department of the History of Medical Sciences, Traditional and Complementary Medicine Research Center, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
2 Department of Health Services Management, Khomein University of Medical Sciences, Khomein, Iran


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Creative Commons License
© 2022 Khosravi et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of the History of Medical Sciences, Traditional and Complementary Medicine Research Center, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran; Tel: 08634173526; E-mail: ashtiyani@yahoo.com


Abstract

Background:

Pharmacology has always been of utmost significance to Persian and Hellenic ancient scientists and presented their viewpoints in medical texts. The aim is to assess the interaction between Hellenic and Persian pharmacologists and the resulting output.

Methods:

Using descriptive-analytical method, primary Persian sources written by scholars such as Raban Tabari, Rhazes, Avicenna, and Jorjani, and also the works by prominent Greek scholars including Theophrastus, Hippocrates, Dioscorides, and Galen were searched using selected keywords, based on inclusion and exclusion critera, without time limit in domestic and foreign databases. Finally, the PRISMA diagram was drawn.

Results:

Studies show that Persian and Greek doctors have tried to develop the concepts of pharmacology and its applications interactively. In this research, pharmacology in Persian and Greek medical traditions is studied, and their mutual contributions are depicted. The concepts of medicine and pharmacology in Greek and Persian medicine are first analyzed. The reciprocal impacts of these two schools of pharmacology are explored, and at the end, the Persian scholars who have cited Greek scholars in their works are introduced.

Conclusion:

With the expansion of territories, ancient theories from the farthest lands entered the realm, introducing new drugs and ideas, which by the critical approach of the Persian scholars were sometimes modified and developed.

Keywords: Pharmacology, Greek medicine, Persian medicine, Cure, Drug, Hellenic and persian pharmacologists.