This study sought to identify barriers to COVID-19 vaccination uptake among the general population in Khaf, eastern Iran.


The sudden emergence of COVID-19 reaffirmed that prevention is preferable to treatment. It is difficult to achieve the goal of widespread COVID-19 vaccination if the general population is reluctant to be vaccinated against it.


This study is a cross-sectional analysis of 412 individuals over the age of 18 who were selected via convenience sampling from the general population in 2022. A researcher-made questionnaire was utilized to collect information regarding COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy from the target population over the phone. The questionnaire covered three domains: personal reasons, concerns about the vaccine, and concerns about the Ministry of Health's performance. The collected data were analyzed with SPSS version 22 statistical software using one-sample t-test and multiple linear regression. The level of significance was established at p <0.05.


This study examined 133 females and 279 males. The highest mean score of COVID-19 vaccination reluctance was associated with the performance of the Ministry of Health (3.77 ± 0.79) and the lowest with personal reasons (2.51 ± 0.57).


COVID-19 vaccination reluctance was associated more with the performance of the Ministry of Health and the nature of the COVID-19 vaccine. Hence, the Ministry of Health must intervene directly to ensure the success of public vaccination by informing people about the vaccine and alleviating mistrust in society.

Keywords: COVID-19, Vaccine, Reluctance, General population, Public health, Health system.
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