The Role of Token Economy Therapy in Reducing the Psychological Burden of Formal Caregivers

Kehinde C. Lawrence1, *, Lindokuhle O. Makhonza2, Mambetalina S. Aliya1
1 Department of Psychology, Faculty of the Social Science, L. N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University Astana, Kazakhstan
2 Department of Educational Psychology and Special Education, Faculty of Education, University of Zululand, Kwa-Dlangezwa, South Africa

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© 2023 Makhonza et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Psychology, Faculty of the Social Science, Eurasian National University L N Gumiyov, Astana, Kazakhstan; E-mail:



The responsibilities of providing care and support for individuals suffering from any form of illness sometimes impose psychological burdens of the care providers.


The major concern of this study was to examine whether token economy therapy (TET) can effectively reduce the psychological burden of formal caregivers in Ibadan, Nigeria.


A quasi-experimental design was adopted. Two secondary health centres in Ibadan were purposively selected, while paid caregivers were randomized into intervention (15) and control (15) groups. Two hypotheses were formulated and tested at a 0.05 significance level using Analysis of Covariance as a statistical analysis.


Findings revealed that the main effect of treatment was significant on the psychological burden (F (1, 29) = 725.492, partial; ῆ2 = 0.962). Furthermore, participants in the TET group had a post-treatment mean score of (χ=70.410) and those in the control group had (χ=31.335).


The study concludes that TET was effective in reducing the psychological burden among health caregivers in state hospitals in Ibadan and was recommended as a treatment modality to reduce psychological burden.

Keywords: Formal caregivers, Psychological burden, Token economy therapy, Sickle cell disease, Treatment, Health caregivers.