Senior Nursing Pain Management Applications in Accordance with Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory: A Cross-sectional Study

Bashar Alzghoul1
1 Department of Respiratory Care, College of Applied Medical Sciences in Jubail, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Jubail 35816, Saudi Arabia

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© 2023 Bashar Alzghoul

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Respiratory Care, College of Applied Medical Sciences in Jubail, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Jubail 35816, Saudi Arabia; E-mail:



There has been a substantial improvement in the tools and methods for managing pain, but there is still a deficiency in the practices of pain management. Thus, the current study provides an overview of Jordanian pain management practices in relation to Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory.


This study aims to examine nurses' Attitudes, Subjective Norms, and Pain Management Practices. Also, it aims to evaluate the impact of Attitudes and Subjective Norms on Pain Management Practices.


The objective of this study is to determine the relationship between attitudes, subjective norms, and pain management practices associated with senior Jordanian nurses determine the level of attitudes, subjective norms, and pain management practices among senior Jordanian nurses.


Using simple random sampling, nurses were selected. A total of 300 questionnaires were sent, but only 67 returned and were analyzed. A descriptive analysis of study variables was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), and a correlation analysis was conducted using Smart PLS.


As a result of the findings, all the hypothesized relationships have been found to be true, particularly the hypothesis that attitude and subjective norms have a direct influence on pain management practices.


Bandura's social cognitive theory appears useful in predicting nurses' pain management practices, according to the present study. A conclusion can be drawn that the independent variables (Attitude and Subjective Norms) explained 55% of the variation in the dependent variable (pain management practices) in this study. It is, therefore, essential that future researchers consider other personal and environmental factors, including workload, knowledge, experience, and the availability of policies and guidelines.

Keywords: Attitude, Knowledge, Pain management practices, Subjective norm, Public hospitals, Nurses.