Content Validation of Lumbopelvic Pain Risk Factors Questionnaire among Women: A Modified Delphi Consensus Study

Priyanka Sushil1
, Jasmine K. Chawla1, *
, Raju K. Parasher2

1 Amity Institute of health allied sciences, Amity University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh 201303, India
2 Amar Jyoti Institute of Physiotherapy, University of Delhi, Delhi 110092, India

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© 2023 Sushil et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Amity Institute of health allied sciences, Amity University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India; Tel: 9888263685; E-mail:



Lumbopelvic pain (LPP) is a surging problem among women worldwide. The genesis of LPP among women is complex as it constitutes a wide array of gynecological, hormonal, gastrointestinal, and obstetrical factors.


The objective was to develop and evaluate the content validity of a questionnaire designed to assess general LPP risk factors relevant to women.


The questionnaire was drafted by comprehensively drawing items from the literature. The drafted questionnaire was conceptualized using the modified Delphi method and sent to nine experts for professional opinions. Based on the expert evaluation, the draft questionnaire was modified/revised and again sent for expert responses.


Overall, three rounds of Delphi were administered to reach a consensus between experts finally. The content validity ratio (CVR) and content validity index (CVI) of the questionnaire was calculated. The newly developed questionnaire constituted 19 items identifying LPP risks in women. The CVI of the overall questionnaire (S-CVI) was 0.99. The questionnaire also reached a universal agreement (S-CVI/UA) of 0.89. In terms of reliability, the internal consistency of the questionnaire was good (Cronbach's alpha of 0.8), with excellent test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient=0.99). The developed questionnaire has 3 domains: ergonomics, general health & well-being, and gynecology & obstetrics.


Using the findings of this Delphi study, we contend that the 19 items enlisted in the ‘LPP risk factor questionnaire’ depicts a multiplicity of LPP risk factors in women. This questionnaire would be beneficial for clinicians during the prevention and assessment phase of lumbopelvic pain.

Keywords: Content validity, Delphi, Indian women, Lumbopelvic pain, Reliability, Risk factors.