Jakarta, the second largest metropolitan area in the world after Tokyo, has experienced rapid development that may not have adhered to the established urban planning regulations. These have caused multiple urban health risk issues, such as high private transportation use, coal-powered plants, lack of green spaces, and industrialization. All of regulations have contributed to the high level of air pollutants in Jakarta Metropolitan Area (JMA). Air pollution is one of the most significant health problems in the world and children are especially exposed confirmed. The fact that children’s organs are still in growth and development phase means that they are especially susceptible to the pollutants entering the body. Existing data showed that the air pollutants in JMA, specifically PM2.5, SO2, NO2, and CO are categorized as moderate to high compared to the international standards, therefore, could potentially become a contributing factor to the mortality and morbidity of children living in Jakarta.


More aggressive approaches are required to tackle air pollution issues, especially because the United Nations News. UN General Assembly declares access to clean and healthy environment a universal human right. 2022. Available from: https://news.un.org/en/story/2022/07/1123482.

Keywords: Air pollution, Child health, Children’s organs, Urban, Jakarta metropolitan area (JMA), World Health Organization.
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