Evaluating the Safety and Efficacy of Manual Lymphatic Drainage with Thai Traditional Massage on Breast Milk Volume, Breast Pain and Engorgement in Post-Cesarean Mothers of Preterm Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial

The Open Public Health Journal 31 Oct 2023 DOI: 10.2174/0118749445267207230919070638



Less breast milk, breast pain, and engorgement are issues that the majority of postpartum mothers have to confront and overcome.


This study examined the efficacy of Manual Lymphatic Drainage (MLD), Thai Traditional Massage (TTM), and standard post-partum nursing care on breast milk volume, breast pain, and engorgement in post-cesarean mothers of preterm infants.


Thirty-two participants were randomly divided into 2 groups: an intervention group receiving MLD, TTM, and standard post-partum nursing care (n=16), and a control group receiving standard post-partum nursing care alone (n=16). Outcomes were assessed through breast milk volume, breast pain and engorgement scores, and participant satisfaction.


The study showed that the group receiving MLD, TTM, and standard post-partum nursing care had a safe and equivalent level of breast milk production compared to the control group. Additionally, there were no significant differences between groups regarding daily milk expression frequency, breast pain, and engorgement over seven days (p>0.05). However, the experimental group expressed a high level of satisfaction with the MLD, TTM, and standard post-partum nursing care interventions.


The combination of MLD, TTM, and standard post-partum nursing care could be a viable alternative for managing post-cesarean care in mothers with preterm infants.

Clinical Trial Reg Number:


Keywords: Manual lymphatic drainage, Thai traditional massage, Standard post-partum nursing care, Breast milk, Breast pain, Breast engorgement.
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