Assessment of Health-promoting Behaviors and Influential Factors in Undergraduate Students in Saudi Arabian Governmental Universities

Fuad H. Abuadas1 , * Open Modal Authors Info & Affiliations
The Open Public Health Journal 05 Oct 2023 RESEARCH ARTICLE DOI: 10.2174/0118749445271320230922102204



The identification of health-promoting behaviors is crucial for improving students' overall well-being. A total of 542 undergraduate students from five Saudi Arabian governmental universities were evaluated to assess health-promoting behaviors and explore the factors that influence these behaviors.


A descriptive cross-sectional design with a convenience sampling technique was employed to select 542 undergraduate students. A scale of health-promoting lifestyle profile II (HPLP II) and sociodemographic factors were used to assess undergraduate students' healthy behaviors. Healthy behaviors of students were measured on a Likert scale of 1 to 4, with 1 being "never" and 4 being "always." Higher scores would indicate that a student engages in more health-promoting behaviors.


Undergraduate students had moderate scores (M = 123) for health-promoting behaviors. Among the subscales of HPLP II, spiritual growth displayed the highest mean score (2.79 ± 0.61), while physical activity had the lowest (1.82 ± 0.35). Multiple linear regression showed significant fit (F = 8.57, p ˂ .01) and explained 6% of the variance in health-promoting behaviors. Family income, academic Grade point average (GPA), and smoking status were found to be significantly associated with health-promoting behaviors. The results suggest that students with low income (β = -0.10, p ˂ .05) were more likely to have lower health-promoting behaviors, while students with higher GPAs (β = 0.09, p ˂ .05) and non-smokers (β = 0.10, p ˂ .05) were more likely to have higher health-promoting behaviors.


The study emphasizes the significance of enhancing behaviors that promote health in undergraduate students, especially in the dimensions of physical activity, coping with stress, and dietary habits.

Keywords: Health promotion, Undergraduate students, Patterns and trends, Physical activity, Healthy behavior, HPLP.
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