Perinatal depression is defined as a depressive episode(s) during the pregnancy and/or postpartum period up to one year. Studies have shown that childbearing people in urban settings experience a higher burden of social factors, such as low socioeconomic status, which may influence the likelihood of developing perinatal depression. Of note, episodes of perinatal depression have been shown to negatively impact child development. Our study has identified population trends in Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) scores >10 during perinatal periods alongside significant social risk factors for people served by LSA Family Health Service providing skilled home-based nursing visits to reduce adverse outcomes.


A retrospective chart review of nursing notes from 2009-2017 was conducted for this cross-sectional study. Outcome measures included antepartum (AP) and postpartum (PP) Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) scores, with a score of > 10, suggesting a positive risk for developing depression. Data were grouped and analyzed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS software (SPSS version 23). Data have been presented as yearly population percentages scoring >10 on their CES-D screen.


The maternal outreach program (MOP) enrolled 1,183 birthing individuals from 2009-2017. The mean parental age was 27 years. 70% were Latinx (n=829) and 20.88% (n=247) were Black. Spanish was the primary language for 43.62% (n=516) of participants. Among CES-D screens completed in the antepartum period, 4.5% to 24.6% of the population met criteria over the 9-year study period for risk of developing depression. Positive CES-D screens completed postpartum ranging from 11.9% to 27.2% during the study period. Significant risk factors for positive postpartum CES-D screens were postpartum risk assessment score (p=0.03), increased gestational age (p=0.05), low income (p=0.03), teen/inexperienced parents (p=0.003), and low education levels (p=0.04).


Trends of positive antepartum and postpartum depression screens in this population have fluctuated over the study period; however, we have identified significant risk factors for positive postpartum screens. Screening for postpartum depression risk factors is important to identify birthing parents who may most benefit from mental health interventions.

Keywords: Perinatal depression, Social risk factors, Urban, Multiethnic population, Depression screening, CES-D.
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