To evaluate the prevalence of refractive errors among elementary school-aged children in Jakarta, particularly in post-pandemic situations.


A cross-sectional study was conducted on 284 children in grades 4th to 6th in two elementary schools in Jakarta.


Ophthalmological examination consisted of uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) examination by trained teachers using a modified and simplified Snellen chart, followed by a slit lamp examination for anterior and posterior segment evaluation and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) examination using auto-refractometer and subjective refraction using a full Snellen chart. Demographic data were obtained via anamnesis and pre-questionnaire from the school database. Correlation between variables, the prevalence of refractive errors and characteristic demographics were analyzed through bivariate or multivariate analysis.


From a total of 284 children, 9 of the total screened children (4%) were already corrected with eyeglasses. However, the refractive screening result showed that 111 subjects (40%) were diagnosed with ametropic conditions, either with myopia and/or astigmatism. Further bivariate analysis to explore the correlation between the prevalence and subject characteristic shows that there was no statistical correlation between school grade and age of subjects toward ametropic diagnosis, even though the majority of the subjects diagnosed with ametropia were populated in younger aged children (less than 12 years old), which was as high as 62% of the total ametropic subjects, therefore clinically correlated.


The significantly increasing prevalence number of refractive errors post-pandemic among elementary school-aged children in Jakarta proved the worrying impact of excessive use of gadgets, online schooling and lack of outdoor activities during the last three years of social restriction in Indonesia. This high prevalence of refractive errors (generally more than 30%) was considered a public health problem. Therefore, these results will encourage the government and healthcare providers to mitigate and accelerate the screening, prevention and treatment of refractive errors in children, in a way to reduce the potential risks of future health, social, and economic problems.

Keywords: Refractive errors, Eye-glasses, Ametropic, Myopia, Astigmatism, Children, Post-pandemic.
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