RESEARCH ARTICLE


Correlation between Medications Used during COVID Infection and Post-conditions after the Acute Phase of Infection: A Cross-sectional Study



Hani Naseef1, *
iD
, Abdallah Damin AbuKhalil1
iD
, Tala Orabi1, Mohammad Joza1, Carmen Mashaala1, Malak Elsheik1, Aseel Dababat1, Maram Qattosa1, Ni'Meh Al-Shami2, Abdullah K Rabba2
iD

1 Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Nursing and Health Professions, Birzeit University, West Bank, State of Palestine
2 Department of Pharmacy , Faculty of Pharmacy, Nursing and Health Professions, Birzeit University, West Bank, State of Palestine


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Creative Commons License
© 2022 Naseef et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Nursing and Health Professions, Birzeit University, West Bank, State of Palestine; Tel: +970-598903449; Fax: +970-2-2982017; E-mail:hshtaya@birzeit.edu


Abstract

Background:

During the COVID-19 pandemic, off-label medication prescribing and utilizing herbal products and multiple vitamins in the treatment, prevention, and symptom management of COVID-19 was an urgently needed practice to halt the SARS-CoV-2 infection crisis and progression.

Objectives:

This study aimed to determine the correlation between medications used during the pandemic and SARS-CoV-2 infection post-recovery symptoms.

Methods:

A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted on recovered COVID-19 patients. There were 20 multiple-choice questions, including patient demographics, treatment, and post-recovery symptoms. Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used to investigate significant relationships. In addition, Binary logistic regression was performed to determine confounders. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 22.

Results:

Medications and supplements varied in their therapeutic effects on SARS-CoV-2 post-recovery symptoms. Patients who took vitamin D and calcium experienced increased symptom frequency, and patients taking ACE inhibitors experienced more headaches and coughs. Furthermore, patients receiving azithromycin were asymptomatic after recovery. Patients who took H2 antagonists reported persistent headaches and muscle pain.

Conclusion:

Patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 have responded differently to medications, multivitamins, and herbal supplements. Patients reported resolution of some symptoms and persistence of others post-recovery. Therefore, expert opinion should be considered in COVID-19 management until randomized controlled trials answer many questions and determine medications' safety and efficacy in prevention, treatment strategies, and symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection post-recovery.

Keywords: COVID-19, Infection, Post-recovery, Symptoms, Post-conditions, Medications.